AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2019 Mar ;35(3):229-235. Epub 2018 Jul 9. PMID: 29877092
Altered Gut Microbiota in HIV Infection: Future Perspective of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Therapy.
HIV infection progressively destroys CD4+ mononuclear cells, leading to profound cellular immune deficiency that manifests as life-threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies (i.e., AIDS). Gut microbiota plays key roles in the modulation of host metabolism and gene expression, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and mediation of inflammatory and immunity. Hence, the normal intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the maintenance of health and disease prevention. In fact, a large number of studies have shown that the alteration of the gut microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic diseases, anorexia nervosa, autoimmune diseases, multiple sclerosis, cancer, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, accumulating evidence has shed light on the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with HIV infection. Hence, the modification of gut microbiota may be a potential therapeutic tool. Fecal microbiota transplantation may improve the conditions of patients with HIV infection by manipulating the human intestinal bacteria. However, the relevant research is very limited, and a large amount of scientific research work needs to be done in the near future.