MMW Fortschr Med. 2017 06 ;159(Suppl 5):1-6. Epub 2017 Jun 22. PMID: 28643294
[Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 influences the gut-associated immune system].
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intestinal microbiome is increasing steadily with regard to the immune function und the defense against pathogens. The medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) has been used as probiotic for the prevention and treatment of infectious diarrhea since more than 50 years. Meta-analyses confirm the clinical efficacy of S. boulardii to treat diarrhea of various origins in children and adults.METHOD: This review article summarizes experimental studies on molecular and immunological mechanisms which explain the proven clinical efficacy of S. boulardii. Thereby the focus is on the gut-associated immune system.RESULTS: S. boulardii stimulates the release of immunoglobulins and cytokines and also induces the maturation of immune cells. This suggests that S. boulardii is capable of activating the unspecific immune system. In case of an infection, S. boulardii is able to bind pathogenic bacteria and to neutralize their toxins. Moreover, the medicinal yeast can attenuate the overreacting inflammatory immune response, by interfering with the signaling cascade, which is induced by the infection, and that way influences the innate and adaptive immune system. Thanks to these mechanisms the pathogens' potential of adhesion is lessened. Thus the intestinal epithelial layer is protected and diarrhea-induced fluid loss is reduced.CONCLUSION: The different molecular and immunological mechanisms investigated in the experimental studies prove the already confirmed very good clinical efficacy of S. boulardii in infectious diarrhea caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.