Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2019 Mar ;23(1 Suppl):27-38. PMID: 30920638
An overview on upper respiratory tract infections and bacteriotherapy as innovative therapeutic strategy.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the most common recurring and chronic upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in children and discuss the role of bacterial interference and bacteriotherapy in their prevention and treatment.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review has been performed on the following topics: acute otitis media, adenoiditis, tonsillitis, rhinosinusitis, microbiotics and the role of bacterial interference, and bacteriotherapy in the prevention and treatment of URTI.RESULTS: Research studies into the characteristics of the microbiological flora and its role in the pathogenesis of URTI have focused on a single pathogen, on resistance to and ineffectiveness of antibiotic therapies, or on the persistence of bacterial biofilm. Recent evidence supports a central role of the existing microbial ecosystem in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease. In light of this, new therapeutic approaches include the implantation and persistence within the normal microflora of relatively innocuous"effector"bacteria that can competitively exclude or prevent the outgrowth of potentially disease-causing bacteria. Recently, a retrospective and observational study demonstrated that S. salivarius 24SMB and S. oralis 89a nasal spray could be effective in the prevention of recurrent otitis media in a real-life setting. Other studies have focused on the role of bacteriotherapy in children with beneficial effects in the prevention of URTI.CONCLUSIONS: The results of previous studies on the role of bacteriotherapy in paediatric URTI suggest that the use of bacterial interference phenomena through bacteriotherapy is a feasible, safe approach and deserves proper consideration as a promising therapeutic strategy against URTI.