J Nutr Biochem. 2019 Jul ;69:73-86. Epub 2019 Apr 6. PMID: 31063918
Probiotics mixture increases butyrate, and subsequently rescues the nigral dopaminergic neurons from MPTP and rotenone-induced neurotoxicity.
Microbiota in the gut affect brain physiology via various pathways, and dysbiosis seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Probiotics showed pleiotropic effects on functions of the central nervous system via microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, no studies displayed the neuroprotective effects of probiotics in the Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to test the neuroprotective effects of probiotics in two different models of PD. We evaluated neuroprotective effects of a probiotic cocktail containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium animalis lactis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus in PD models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone utilizing behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry and neurochemical analysis. To assure the neuroprotection came from increased production of butyrate, we further determined beneficial effects of butyrate in the MPTP-mediated PD model. The probiotic mixture overtly protected the dopaminergic neurons against MPTP neurotoxicity. However, the probiotics downregulated expression of monoamine oxidase (MAO) B in the striatum, which was accompanied by a lower level of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), the main neurotoxic metabolite of MPTP. Thus, we extended the investigation into the rotenone-induced PD model. Rescuing effects of the probiotics were observed in the setup, which came with increased levels of neurotrophic factors and butyrate in the brain. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was identified to be a major contributor to the induction of neurotrophic factors and downregulation of MAO B. Finally, we demonstrated that sodium butyrate attenuated MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the nigrostriatal pathway. Probiotics could ameliorate neurodegeneration at least partially by increasing butyrate level. These data highlight the role of probiotics for brain health, and their potential as a preventive measure for neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.