Environ Health Perspect. 2019 Jul ;127(7):77001. Epub 2019 Jul 3. PMID: 31268362
Long-Term Particulate Matter Exposure and Onset of Depression in Middle-Aged Men and Women.
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with all-cause mortality and adverse cognitive outcomes, but the association with developing depression remains inconsistent.OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the prospective association between PM air pollution and developing depression assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale.METHODS: Subjects were drawn from a prospective cohort study of 123,045 men and women free of depressive symptoms at baseline who attended regular screening exams in Seoul and Suwon, South Korea, from 2011 to 2015. Exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively) was estimated using a land-use regression model based on each subject's residential postal code. Incident depression was defined as a CES-D score [Formula: see text] during follow-up. As a sensitivity analyses, we defined incident depression using self-reports of doctor's diagnoses or use of antidepressant medications during follow-up.RESULTS: The mean baseline 12-month concentrations of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were 50.6 (4.5) and [Formula: see text], respectively. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing depression associated with a [Formula: see text] increase in 12- and 60-month [Formula: see text] exposure were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11), respectively. The corresponding HRs for 12-month [Formula: see text] exposure was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.43). Similar results were obtained when incident depression was identified using self-reports of doctor's diagnoses or the use of antidepressant medications.CONCLUSION: In this large cohort study, we found a positive association between long-term exposure to outdoor [Formula: see text] air pollution and the developing depression. We did not find an association for outdoor [Formula: see text] air pollution; however, we had a much shorter follow-up for subjects' exposure to [Formula: see text]. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4094.