Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 22 ;9(1):10584. Epub 2019 Jul 22. PMID: 31332285
Effect of antioxidants on BPA-induced stress on sperm function in a mouse model.
In the past few years, bisphenol A, (BPA) an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has received increasing attention because of its detrimental health effects. There is ample evidence to support that BPA interferes with the reproductive health of humans and animals. In spermatozoa, BPA-induced adverse effects are mostly caused by increased oxidative stress. Using an in vitro experimental model, we examined whether antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) have defensive effects against BPA-induced stress in spermatozoa. The results showed that antioxidants inhibit the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (basically cellular peroxides) and increase intracellular ATP levels, thereby preventing motility loss and abnormal acrosome reaction in BPA-exposed spermatozoa. In particular, glutathione and vitamin E reduced the protein kinase A-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa and, thus, prevented the precocious acrosome reaction from occurring. Furthermore, we found that the compromised fertilisation and early embryo development mediated by BPA-exposed spermatozoa can be improved following their supplementation with glutathione and vitamin E. Based on these findings, we suggest that antioxidants reduce oxidative stress in BPA-exposed spermatozoa, thus preventing detrimental effects on their function and fertility.