Environ Int. 2020 Jan 8 ;136:105440. Epub 2020 Jan 8. PMID: 31926436
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution, APOE-ε4 status, and cognitive decline in a cohort of older adults in northern Manhattan.
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that long-term exposure to air pollution is related to accelerated cognitive decline in aging populations. Factors that influence individual susceptibility remain largely unknown, but may involve the apolipoprotein E genotype E4 (APOE-ε4) allele.OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cognitive decline differed by APOE-ε4 status and cognitive risk factors.METHODS: The Washington Heights Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) is a prospective study of aging and dementia. Neuropsychological testing and medical examinations occur every 18-24 months. We used mixed-effects models to evaluate whether the association between markers of ambient air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO]), fine [PM], and coarse [PM] particulate matter) and the rate of decline in global and domain-specific cognition differed across strata defined by APOE-ε4 genotypes and cognitive risk factors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and temporal trends.RESULTS: Among 4821 participants with an average of 6 years follow-up, higher concentrations of ambient air pollution were associated with more rapid cognitive decline. This association was more pronounced among APOE-ε4 carriers (p