Pharmacol Res. 2020 Jan 3 ;152:104630. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31911245
Ginsenoside Rg1 and the control of inflammation implications for the therapy of type 2 diabetes: A review of scientific findings and call for further research.
The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is gradually assuming pandemic proportions, leaving in its trail increased morbidity and mortality. This trend is mainly credited to the adoption of unhealthy lifestyles resulting in increased cases of overweightness and obesity. Traditionally, T2D is considered a metabolic disorder epitomized by prolonged elevated levels of glucose due to insulin resistance and/or decreased insulin secretion resulting from pancreaticβ-cells dysfunction. Our current understanding of the disease implicates the adipose tissue in the induction of low-grade chronic inflammation which in turn initiates a cascade of anti- and pro-inflammatory responses by the immune system ultimately damaging the β-cells of the pancreas. The centralrole of inflammation in the initiation and progress of T2D is now receiving a lot of attention. This review gives an overview of the centrality of inflammation in the pathogenesis of T2D and focuses on the therapeutic potential of ginsenoside Rg1. This review is borne out of the hypothesis that, ifinflammation is an absolute precondition to T2D initiation and progress, then attenuation of inflammation should hold therapeutic promise. In line with this, we highlight the anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 among others and proffer suggestions for future studies.