Matern Child Health J. 2020 Jan 24. Epub 2020 Jan 24. PMID: 31981064
The Association of Childhood Pneumonia with Household Air Pollution in Nepal: Evidence from Nepal Demographic Health Surveys.
INTRODUCTION: Childhood pneumonia is a major cause of mortality worldwide while household air pollution (HAP) is a major contributor to childhood pneumonia in low and middle-income countries. This paper presents the prevalence trend of childhood pneumonia in Nepal and assesses its association with household air pollution.METHODS: The study analysed data from the 2006, 2011 and 2016 Nepal Demographic Health Surveys (NDHS). It calculated the prevalence of childhood pneumonia and the factors that cause household air pollution. The association of childhood pneumonia and HAP was assessed using univariate and multi-variate analysis. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of indoor pollution for causing pneumonia was calculated using 2016 NDHS data to assess the burden of pneumonia attributable to HAP factors.RESULTS: The prevalence of childhood pneumonia decreased in Nepal between 2006 and 2016 and was higher among households using polluting cooking fuels. There was a higher risk of childhood pneumonia among children who lived in households with no separate kitchens in 2011 [Adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.97] and in 2016 (ARR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.28). In 2016, the risk of children contracting pneumonia in households using polluting fuels was double (ARR 1.98, 95% CI 1.01-3.92) that of children from households using clean fuels. Based on the 2016 data, the PAF for pneumonia was calculated as 30.9% for not having a separate kitchen room and 39.8% for using polluting cooking fuel.DISCUSSION FOR PRACTICE: Although the occurrence of childhood pneumonia in Nepal has decreased, the level of its association with HAP remained high.