Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2020 Jan 21. Epub 2020 Jan 21. PMID: 31962346
[Effectiveness of Biofeedback for Primary Headache – A Randomized Controlled Study].
BACKGROUND: Biofeedback-treatment for primary headache is highly recommended. Its expenses are mostly not or not completely covered by health funds, hindering the implementation in the care system. This randomized controlled study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a biofeedback-treatment for primary headache in the outpatient care system all over Germany.METHODS: The participants were divided into a direct treatment-group (n=41) and a waiting control-group (n=29). The treatment was carried out for 8-11 sessions with vasoconstriction-/vasodilation training for migraine, with electromyography training for headache of the tension type (diagnosis according to the criteria of the International Headache Association). Headache characteristics (frequency, duration, intensity) were collected via headache-diary before, during and after the treatment and headache specific disability using the Pain Disability Index before and after the treatment. The waiting group stated additional information of the questionnaires about 3 months before and again ultimately before the start of the treatment. Measurement of the headache specific self-efficacy (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale) took place every second session. For the collected parameters the effect sizes for r were computed before in comparison to after the treatment and comparing the treatment-group to the waiting-group.RESULTS: Headache characteristics decreased during the time of the study significantly linearly with medium to strong effects (frequency f=0.302, p