J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Feb 15. Epub 2020 Feb 15. PMID: 32064876
Occurrence, bioavailability, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of pterostilbene.
Supplementation with natural compounds found in fruits and vegetables has long been associated with a reduced risk of several types of cancer. Pterostilbene is a natural stilbenoid and a di-methylated analog of resveratrol which is found primarily in blueberries. Pterostilbene exhibits a range of pharmacological properties, particularly anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Due to two methoxy groups in its skeleton, pterostilbene is more lipophilic than resveratrol and thus possesses higher intestinal permeability and cellular uptake, and enhanced stability. Moreover, pterostilbene exhibits less toxicity and fewer adverse effects, providing it with superior potential in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy applications. Numerous research studies have demonstrated that pterostilbene possesses detoxification activities, mediating the anti-inﬂammation response, regulating the cell cycle, augmenting apoptosis, enhancing autophagy, and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis by modulating signal transduction pathways which block multiple stages of carcinogenesis. In this review, we illustrate that pterostilbene is a natural compound having bioavailability. The extensive metabolism of pterostilbene will be discussed. We also summarize recent research on pterostilbene's anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties in the multi-stage carcinogenesis process and related molecular mechanism and conclude that it should contribute to improved cancer management.