Planta Med. 2020 Feb 25. Epub 2020 Feb 25. PMID: 32097975
Effects of Ginkgo biloba on Diseases Related to Oxidative Stress.
(GB) is one of the most widely used phytotherapeutic products in the world, and its extract has beneficial properties for the treatment of several pathologies, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, cataracts, hearing loss, myocardial lesion, hippocampus neuronal lesions, morphometry testicular changes, and liver damage. This review aims to investigate the effects of GB on diseases related to oxidative stress. Databases such as MEDLINE/PUBMED and EMBASE were consulted, and PRISMA guidelines were used to build the review. This plant has antioxidant properties since it regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes positively and reduces reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, contributing to the reduction of lipid peroxidation. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-. In animal models, the use of GB can show positive effects on brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases, myocardial injury, and renal and liver damage. In humans, the positive effects were shown in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic colitis. These effects are due to the presence of compounds such as bilobalide, isoramnetina, quercetin, kaempferol, and ginkgolides A, B, and C. For these reasons, GB can be a low-cost alternative to the therapeutic approach of several pathologies since it acts in the prevention, treatment, and inhibition of several complications of common comorbidities.