J Sport Health Sci. 2020 Jan ;9(1):53-73. Epub 2019 Jul 13. PMID: 31921481
Impacts of exercise interventions on different diseases and organ functions in mice.
Background: In recent years, much evidence has emerged to indicate that exercise can benefit people when performed properly. This review summarizes the exercise interventions used in studies involving mice as they are related to special diseases or physiological status. To further understand the effects of exercise interventions in treating or preventing diseases, it is important to establish a template for exercise interventions that can be used in future exercise-related studies.Methods: PubMed was used as the data resource for articles. To identify studies related to the effectiveness of exercise interventions for treating various diseases and organ functions in mice, we used the following search language: (exercise [Title] OR training [Title] OR physical activity [Title]) AND (mice [title/abstract] OR mouse [title/abstract] OR mus [title/abstract]). To limit the range of search results, we included 2 filters: one that limited publication dates to"in 10 years"and one that sorted the results as"best match". Then we grouped the commonly used exercise methods according to their similarities and differences. We then evaluated the effectiveness of the exercise interventions for their impact on diseases and organ functions in 8 different systems.Results: A total of 331 articles were included in the analysis procedure. The articles were then segmented into 8 systems for which the exercise interventions were used in targeting and treating disorders: motor system (60 studies), metabolic system (45 studies), cardio-cerebral vascular system (58 studies), nervous system (74 studies), immune system (32 studies), respiratory system (7 studies), digestive system (1 study), and the system related to the development of cancer (54 studies). The methods of exercise interventions mainly involved the use of treadmills, voluntary wheel-running, forced wheel-running, swimming, and resistance training. It was found that regardless of the specific exercise method used, most of them demonstrated positive effects on various systemic diseases and organ functions. Most diseases were remitted with exercise regardless of the exercise method used, although some diseases showed the best remission effects when a specific method was used.Conclusion: Our review strongly suggests that exercise intervention is a cornerstone in disease prevention and treatment in mice. Because exercise interventions in humans typically focus on chronic diseases, national fitness, and body weight loss, and typically have low intervention compliance rates, it is important to use mice models to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the health benefits from exercise interventions in humans.