Adv Nutr. 2020 Mar 5. Epub 2020 Mar 5. PMID: 32135008
The Effects of Diets Enriched in Monounsaturated Oleic Acid on the Management and Prevention of Obesity: a Systematic Review of Human Intervention Studies.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of several major noncommunicable diseases, and is an important public health concern globally. Dietary fat content is a major contributor to the increase in global obesity rates. Changes in dietary habits, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to prevent obesity and its metabolic complications. In recent years, a number of studies have found that oleic acid (OA), the most common MUFA in daily nutrition, has protective effects against human disease. Importantly, there is emerging evidence indicating the beneficial effects of OA in regulating body weight. Accordingly, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of diets enriched in monounsaturated OA on the management and prevention of obesity, emphasizing possible mechanisms of action of OA in energy homeostasis. Searches were performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases for clinical trials that examined the effects of diets rich in OA on obesity. Of 821 full-text articles assessed, 28 clinical trials were included in the present study. According to the studies examined in this review, diets enriched in OA can influence fat balance, body weight, and possibly energy expenditure. Importantly, abdominal fat and central obesity can be reduced following consumption of high-OA-containing meals. Mechanistically, OA-rich diets can be involved in the regulation of food intake, body mass, and energy expenditure by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. Other proposed mechanisms include the prevention of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway, the induction of oleoylethanolamide synthesis, and possibly the downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 activity. In summary, current findings lend support to advice not restricting consumption of OA-rich meals so as to maintain a healthy body weight.