Nutrients. 2019 Nov 2 ;11(11). Epub 2019 Nov 2. PMID: 31684015
Effects of Low-Fat and High-Fat Meals, with and without Dietary Fiber, on Postprandial Endothelial Function, Triglyceridemia, and Glycemia in Adolescents.
The consumption of fiber-rich foods may negate the deleterious effects of high-fat meals on postprandial triglyceridemia and endothelial function. Despite supportive data in adults, little is known about the effects of high-fat and high-fiber foods on cardiovascular health parameters in pediatric populations. In this crossover trial, male and female adolescents (= 10; 14.1 + 2.6 years; range 10-17 years) consumed (1) low-fat, low-fiber, (2) low-fat, high-fiber, (3) high-fat, low-fiber, and (4) high-fat, high-fiber breakfast meals in randomized order, each following an overnight fast. Baseline and 4 h post-meal blood was obtained for determination of glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Postprandial FMD was not significantly changed after any meal. However, regression analyses revealed a significant inverse relationship between the change in 4 h triglyceride concentration and change in 4 h FMD for the high-fat, low-fiber meal (β = -0.087; 95% CI = -0.138 to -0.037;= 0.001) that was no longer significant in the high-fat, high-fiber meal (β = -0.044; 95% CI = -0.117 to 0.029;= 0.227). Interpretation of these analyses must be qualified by acknowledging that between-meal comparison revealed that the two regression lines were not statistically different (= 0.226). Addition of high-fiber cereal to the high-fat meal also reduced 4 h postprandial triglyceride increases by ~50% (= 0.056). A high-fiber breakfast cereal did not attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of a low-fat meal. While further work is needed to confirm these results in larger cohorts, our findings indicate the potential importance of cereal fiber in blunting the inverse relationship between postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and FMD after consumption of a high-fat meal in adolescents.