Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jan ;109:2054-2061. Epub 2018 Nov 26. PMID: 30551461
Chemopreventive mechanisms of galangin against hepatocellular carcinoma: A review.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate in less developed countries, especially in China. Galangin (GA), one of the most important and naturally active flavonoids, extracted primarily from the root of Alpinia officinarum Hance, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of HCC. It is a substance with defensive actions and a broad range of biological properties, including inhibitory effects on bacteria, fungi, viruses, the control of hypertension and diabetes, and chemoprevention of several cancers. Experiments have shown that GA prevents HCC through multiple anti-cancer mechanisms, anti-genotoxic activity against environmental and dietary carcinogens; anti-proliferative effects through reversal of the Warburg effect in HCC; arrest of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase; induction of apoptosis via stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway; induction of autophagy; and inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, and multidrug resistance (MDR). In addition, synergistic effects with other chemotherapy drugs have been demonstrated. Therefore, this review is focused on the anti-HCC mechanisms of GA.