Front Immunol. 2019 ;10:210. Epub 2019 Feb 12. PMID: 30809228
TET Enzymes and 5hmC in Adaptive and Innate Immune Systems.
DNA methylation is an abundant and stable epigenetic modification that allows inheritance of information from parental to daughter cells. At active genomic regions, DNA methylation can be reversed by TET (Ten-eleven translocation) enzymes, which are responsible for fine-tuning methylation patterns. TET enzymes oxidize the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to yield 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and other oxidized methylcytosines, facilitating both passive and active demethylation. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the essential functions of TET enzymes in regulating gene expression, promoting cell differentiation, and suppressing tumor formation. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of the functions of TET enzymes in the development and function of lymphoid and myeloid cells. How TET activity can be modulated by metabolites, including vitamin C and 2-hydroxyglutarate, and its potential application in shaping the course of immune response will be discussed.