Anticancer potential of naturally occurring immunoepigenetic modulators.

Anticancer potential of naturally occurring immunoepigenetic modulators.

PMID: 

Cancer. 2019 05 15 ;125(10):1612-1628. Epub 2019 Mar 6. PMID: 30840315

Abstract Title: 

Anticancer potential of naturally occurring immunoepigenetic modulators: A promising avenue?

Abstract: 

The immune system represents the major primary defense line against carcinogenesis and acts by identifying and eradicating nascent transformed cells. A growing body of evidence is indicating that aberrant epigenetic reprogramming plays a key role in tumor immune escape through: 1) impaired efficient recognition of neoplastic cells by the immune system, resulting from a downregulation or loss of the expression of tumor-associated antigens, human leukocyte antigens, antigen processing and presenting machinery, and costimulatory molecule genes; 2) aberrant expression of immune checkpoint proteins and their ligands; and 3) modification of cytokine profiles and tumor-associated immune cell populations toward an immunosuppressive state in the tumor microenvironment. Consistent with the inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations, epigenetic drugs, including DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors, have the unique potential to favorably modify the tumor microenvironment, restore tumor recognition and stimulate an antitumor immune response. The objective of this review is to highlight selected, naturally occurring epigenetic modulators, namely, butyrate, curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, romidepsin, and trichostatin A, with a special focus on their antitumor immune properties.

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