Front Physiol. 2019 ;10:1602. Epub 2020 Jan 24. PMID: 32038286
Effect of Acute and Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Immunological Markers: A Systematic Review.
The effects of aerobic exercise on the immune system are not yet fully defined in the scientific literature. This fact demonstrates the need to investigate its influence on existing immunological markers by classifying and quantifying their acute and chronic effects.To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on inflammatory markers of healthy adults.This study is a systematic review according to PRISMA recommendations. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, Bireme and Cochrane Library, and article references. The last search was performed in March 2019. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on immune markers in healthy male and female adults aged 20 to 45 years, without restrictions in language or year of publication. Two authors independently analyzed the studies by reading the titles, abstracts, and full texts. Risk of Study bias was analyzed using Cochrane's Risk of Bias Tool.We included 15 studies in this systematic review, 13 of which were acute intervention and 2 were chronic, with 296 participants, 196 men and 100 women all being healthy individuals. It was observed that the acute intervention promotes changes in most immunological markers, while the chronic intervention interferes with a smaller proportion, this being in lymphocyte subpopulations. In the evaluation of quality, it was found that most studies did not present a high risk of bias in the evaluated aspects, but an unclear related risk of bias was observed, requiring a more careful analysis.Thus, it can be concluded that the evidence indicates that acute and chronic interventions may modify most immune markers, but aspects such as gender, contraceptive pill use in women, physical capacity of the investigated individuals, environment, and type and intensity of the exercises may interfere with these markers as well as the data analysis. Therefore, this review suggests that further research is needed to contribute to the confirmation and estimation of results.